The Citizenship Pendulum: How the idea of citizenship has swung between rights and obligation

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A Patent of Roman citizenship granted to Hasekura Tsunenaga, 20 November 1615.
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Greek colonisation in the Archaic period
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A Greek Hoplite warrior
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Cleisthenes
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Aristotle
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The Roman Empire in 210 AD
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The Magna Carta of 1215, signed under duress by King John of England
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The coronation of Charles VII of France 1429
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Italy in 1494
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The storming of the Bastille 14 July 1789

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I write about history and its echoes and lessons for the present.

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