The Citizenship Pendulum: How the idea of citizenship has swung between rights and obligation

A Patent of Roman citizenship granted to Hasekura Tsunenaga, 20 November 1615.
Greek colonisation in the Archaic period
A Greek Hoplite warrior
Cleisthenes
Aristotle
The Roman Empire in 210 AD
The Magna Carta of 1215, signed under duress by King John of England
The coronation of Charles VII of France 1429
Italy in 1494
The storming of the Bastille 14 July 1789

I write about history and its echoes and lessons for the present.

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